Having covered the more factual parts of Vivaldi’s life and music in part 1, you can sit back, relax and enjoy the maestro’s music…
‘L’estro Armonico’ (Harmonic Inspiration) Opus 3
This is a set of twelve concertos for one, two and four violins composed by Vivaldi in 1711.
“Perhaps the most influential collection of instrumental music to appear during the whole of the eighteenth century.” ~ Michael Talbot
It’s impossible to highlight so few works out of such an incredible oeuvre but here, in no particular order is a selection of some of my favourites from this opus for your listening pleasure!
Violin Concerto in G major, Op. 3 No. 6, (RV 310) performed by Elizabeth Wallfisch and Tafelmusik:
The amazing harpsichord version transcribed by Bach (BWV 978) played by Chiara Massini:
Violin Concerto in A minor, Op. 3 No. 6, RV 356 by Elizabeth Wallfisch:
Concerto for two violins, strings & B.C in A minor, RV522 Op. 3 No. 8 by Tafelmusik:
Concerto for four violins in B minor, Op. 3 No. 10, RV 580 by Il Giardino Armonico:
The astonishing performance of Bach’s transcription for 4 keyboards (BWV 1065), Argerich, Kissin, Pletnev, Levine and a host of top notch violinists! I challenge you to listen to this and not feel happy afterwards!
Concerto for 2 Violins, Cello, Strings and B.C. in D minor Op. 3 No. 11, RV 565 by Tafelmusik:
Il cimento dell’armonia e dell’inventione (The Contest Between Harmony and Invention) Opus 8
Written between 1723 and 1725 and published in 1725, Vivaldi’s Opus 8 consists of twelve violin concertos which he labelled ‘Il cimento dell’armonia e dell’inventione’, of which the first four concertos were his famous The Four Seasons.
The Four Seasons: Opus 8 Nos. 1-4
Had it not been for the Turin collection The Four Seasons may have never been resurrected from their archive, dusted down and brought back into public awareness. Although ‘Le Quattro Stagioni’ were not among the Turin find the excitement about the discovery meant they were granted a new lease of life.
The first four Opus 8 concertos are now the most widely recorded pieces in classical music history repertoire. Since the very first recording made by Alfredo Campoli in 1939 there have been over a thousand different recorded versions.
With records, CDs and digital downloads to sell and with so many versions of such a popular work it’s crucial for artists to emulate a critical business practice: differentiation. There’s an array of classical and period baroque instruments, chamber groups, orchestras and ensemble styles, giving licence to the soloist and musicians to embellish, alter the tempo and put their personal touch to it, in order to distinguish them from other recordings and performances.
The seminal 1969 recording by the Academy of St. Martin-in-the-Fields featuring violinist Alan Loveday under the baton of Sir Neville Marriner, reputedly catapulted the piece from its recondite realm to that of mainstream consumption.
The third movement from ‘Winter’ of that album:
Nigel Kennedy’s 1989 recording of The Four Seasons with the English Chamber Orchestra sold over two million copies, becoming one of the best-selling classical works ever.
Gil Shaham and the Orpheus Chamber Orchestra recorded The Four Seasons as well as a music video for the first movement of ‘Winter’ that was featured regularly on The Weather Channel in the mid-1990s.
Today, it seems unthinkable that Vivaldi could have been forgotten and overlooked by history.
Personally, I love to play The Four Seasons and find ‘Winter’ by far the hardest to master, being written in the key of F minor. I love the hashtag (sharp notes) but four flats haunt me…
I recently learnt that Vivaldi actually wrote sonnets to accompany the Four Seasons, which the music relates to perfectly. It’s an early example of programme music, a genius of descriptive musical storytelling that conjures up vivid scenes in your mind…
Between 1718 and 1720 Vivaldi left Venice and travelled to the countryside of Mantua; where it is believed he absorbed the setting and inspiration for his most ‘nature oriented’ work!
La Primavera (Spring) RV 269
In the first movement the birds are represented by the most sublime trills, and the gentle melody that evokes the murmur of the brook, followed by the semi quavers which indicate a quick storm, followed by the birds again as the air clears…
Itzhak Perlman and IPO strings delight:
L’Estate (Summer) RV 315
The first movement in particular gives me a sense of a sweltering, bleak and languid environment. I can feel how hard it must be for Vivaldi to breathe, his asthma aggravated by the humidity. It’s written in G minor, which is considered to be the ‘darkest’ key. Overall the feel of the second movement is listless. It fills me with torpor…until the third movement he unleashes the storm to end all storms!
Julia Fischer and the strings of The Academy of St. Martin-in-the Field perfectly capture the deeply suffocating spirit of this concerto:
L’Autunno (Autumn) RV 293
The third movement seems to poke fun at the hunters; I think Vivaldi was definitely a member of the anti-hunting lobby!
The dotted quavers signify the plodding hooves of cruel men on their clumsy horses. As the tempo increases you can hear the prey running for its life. The chords begin to raise a semitone with each phrase, increasing the pressure on the animal as the hunters and dogs close in. Gun shots ring out, the animal finally gives up its struggle and you imagine you can hear the dogs laughing… The final insult occurs after the main theme returns at the end of the finale signifying the hunters going about their deathly business.
I love Giuliano Carmignola and I Sonatori de la Gioiosa Marca’s interpretation:
L’Inverno (Winter) RV 297
The opening movement sounds very metallic and visceral, (thanks to the use of the bow very close to the bridge). You can definitely hear teeth chattering!
This performance by Il Giardino Armonico sends chills down my spine!
Arrangements of The Four Seasons
Vivaldi actually re-scored his ‘Spring’ allegro for use in the opening overture and chorus of his opera Dorilla in Tempe, thus setting the trend for future transcriptions, covers, remixes, adaptations and mashups.
The fact that so many improvisations have been possible is testament to Vivaldi’s skill as a composer.
In 1765 French organist and composer Michel Corrette arranged ‘Spring’ as a choral motet for choir and orchestra: Laudate Dominum de Coelis, subtitled “Motet à Grand Chœur arrangé dans le Concerto de Printemps de Vivaldi”. The words of Psalm 116 are set to the music with vocal soloists performing the solo violin parts.
Vivaldi’s inventiveness paved the way for Beethoven to write the ‘Pastoral’ symphony in 1808 also featuring drunken peasants and a storm.
In 1969 the Swingle Singers did an a cappella cover from their album the Joy of Singing.
In Argentina Ástor Piazzolla published Estaciones Porteñas, ‘The Four Seasons of Buenos Aires’ in performances by various artists since 1970.
Jacques Loussier and his jazz trio covered the ‘Four Seasons’ in this wonderful performance:
Vanessa Mae was the first violinist to use an electric violin on her crossover version of the Presto from ‘Summer’ and following in her footsteps there have been various arrangements for harp, electric guitar, choral and rock remixes.
I particularly like this choral version of ‘Winter’ by the Accentus Chamber Choir:
Arrangement for Flute of ‘Winter’ by Jean-Pierre Rampal & Franz Liszt Chamber Orchestra:
A gorgeous second movement from ‘Winter’ for the oboe with Albrecht Mayer and New Seasons Ensemble:
In 2012 composer Max Richter created a postmodern and minimalist re-composition released as ‘Recomposed – Vivaldi The Four Seasons’. Working with solo violinist Daniel Hope, Richter discarded around seventy five percent of the original source material. A live recording with the composer at Le Poisson Rouge in New York:
There’s even a flamenco/tango arrangement of Spring by Gustavo Montesano and the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra!
Opus 8 Nos. 5 – 12
Here are three of the remaining eight works that follow The Four Seasons in the Opus 8.
Violin Concerto ‘La Tempesta di Mare’ in E-Flat major, Op. 8 No. 5 RV 253 by Giuliano Carmignola and the Venice Baroque Orchestra:
Violin Concerto in C Major, ‘Il piacere’ Op. 8 No. 6, RV180 – Andrew Manze and the Academy of Ancient Music:
Concerto No. 7 in D minor, ‘Per Pisendel’, Op. 8 No. 7 RV 242 by Giardino Armonico:
Other Violin Favourites
I love the way Anne Akiko Meyers plays all three parts in his Triple Violin Concerto in F Major RV 551:
Il Rosignuolo – Concerto for violin, organ, strings & B.C. in A major, RV 335a by MusicaAdRhenum:
Violin Concerto in E Major, RV 271 ‘L`amoroso’ played as a tender love song by I Musici:
Violin Concerto in E minor, Op. 11 No. 2 ‘Il Favorito’ (RV 277) first movement by Giuliano Carmignola & I Sonatori de la Gioiosa Marca:
´La Stravaganza` 12 Violin concertos Opus 4, by Rachel Podger and Arte Dei Suonatori:
Violin Concerto in A Major, ‘The Cuckoo’ (RV 335) with Giuliano Carmignola:
Violin Concerto in D Major, ‘Il Grosso Mogul’ (RV 208) by Il Giardino Armonico:
Sonata for 2 violins & B.C. in D minor, Op. 1 No. 12 (RV 63) ‘La Follia’ by Il Giardino Armonico:
Transcriptions and Arrangements
Violin Concerto in D, Op. 3 No. 9 (RV.230) – arr. for trumpet, violin, cello and harpsichord with Alison Balsam:
Bach Sicilienne from Concerto in D minor, BWV596 after Vivaldi RV 565, Alexandre Tharaud:
The largo of the Lute Concerto in D Major, RV 93 performed on classical guitar by John Williams always transports me to a place beyond words:
Trio Sonata Op. 1 No. 12 ‘La Follia’ by the Barrios Guitar Quartet:
Concertos for other instruments
This one really pulls my heart strings! Adagio from the Cello Concerto No. 1 in C major RV 398 by Rostropovich:
Heinz Holliger on form in the second movement of the Oboe Concerto in C major, RV 452:
Piccolo Concerto in C major, RV 443 – Il Giardino Armonico:
Flute Concerto in G minor, ‘La Notte’ RV439 with Fabio Biondi & Europa Galante:
Examples of sacred music
I don’t think there’s any doubt about Vivaldi’s faith when you listen to his sacred works. Here is a selection of some of my favourites, but there are many I have yet to discover!
Gloria in Excelsis in C Major, (RV 588):
Motet Nulla in mundo pax sincera (RV630):
“Et in terra pax hominibus” with Emma Kirkby, Michael Chance & Tessa Bonner:
Dixit Dominus was rediscovered in 2005 by Australian scholar Janice Stockigt. (RV807):
Nisi Dominus (RV608) by the Academy of Ancient Music and Christopher Hogwood:
Modern Catalog of Works
Although both CE (Complete Edition) and Fanna numbers (F.) have been used in the past, the modern catalog of numbers attributed to Vivaldi’s multitudinous works was created in the 1970’s by Danish musicologist Peter Ryom and take the prefix RV – “Ryom-Verzeichnis” or “Répertoire des oeuvres d’Antonio Vivaldi”. They do not necessarily follow in consecutive order with adjacent works.
- List of known compositions
- List of kown operas
The end in Vienna
Although Vivaldi lived a comfortable life in Venice, (he made around 50,000 ducats in his lifetime) changing musical tastes meant his music was no longer in demand so he sold off a chunk of manuscripts to finance his last trip to Vienna.
He planned to serve as a composer at the imperial court of Emperor Charles IV and perhaps stage operas. Unfortunately his patron died soon after his arrival in the city, leaving Vivaldi without an income and he died penniless. Not a fitting end to such a magnificent career. His funeral took place in St. Stephen’s and he was laid to rest next to Karlskirche.
I have come to the conclusion that Vivaldi lived his life with as much exuberance as his music arouses in the listener. The sheer volume of his output is unmatched to this day; a feat of such unbridled passion for music as will probably never be seen again…